Reduction of mental stress by rebounding has been proven over and over again by scientific studies. Stress research in the United States centers on heart disease, and for good reason. Cardiovascular ailments such as coronary heart disease now take an appalling annual toll in lives of American men in vigorous middle age. Of the 1,000,000 people who died from coronary heart disease in the U.S. last year, almost one-third were under sixty-five.
In fact, for those who are recovering from a heart attack, the recommendation often is to exercise. Doctors believe that for most patients exercise is beneficial, pro-vided it does not cause pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms. The patient should not engage in exercise until he discusses his limitations with his physician, including the desirability of special testing for the amount of stress he can tolerate.
Research is going on constantly, and all forms of investigations are being used. The latest is exercising pigs. The pigs are jogging in an Arizona State University study on the effects of exercise and high-fat diets on heart problems. A graduate student in agriculture, Ross Consaul, and George Seperich, an assistant professor of agriculture, head the study that has their pigs running two miles a day.
Mr. Consaul jogs behind the pigs, occasionally prod-ding them with a long two-pronged fork, to keep up the pace. "They burn up the track for about the first lap," he said. "After that, most of them need some encouragement. We started them with a nice, easy jog most people could do - about a third of a mile. Then, as soon as they improve their time by 10 percent, we in-crease their distance by 50 meters."
The pigs were chosen for the study because many of their psychological characteristics resemble those of humans, such as susceptibility to stress and heart attacks.
Pigs were also chosen because, as Professor Seperichput it, "We can be fairly sure no one is going to invite our pigs out for beer and pizza in the middle of our study."
There are eighteen pigs involved. Six have jogged daily since they were forty-pound piglets; six started jogging after they reached the middle-age weight of 150pounds, and six simply sit around eating and sleeping in the usual pig fashion. They are separated into normal and well-balanced diet groups, high in saturated fats, and high in unsaturated fats.
The two researchers have found the jogging 'pigs are more energetic and cheerful than the sedentary ones. They seem to suffer less from stress.8
Prior research with exercise has turned up more than thirty particular benefits from regular movement in either one's occupation, recreation, or for purposes of just bodily motion. The specific anti-stress benefits of rebounding are even more exaggerated, since, as Albert E. Carter points out in his book, The Miracles of Re- bound Exercise. "Rebounding not only increases the strength of each muscle by increasing the G force repeatedly, but also
increases the fitness of the muscle by improving lymphatic and blood circulation in the muscle."9
The following are thirty specific anti-stress benefits of performing rebounding aerobics on a regular basis:10
1) It tones up the glandular system to increase the output of the thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, and the adrenals. The thyroid's hormonal production stimulates or affects almost every important body process, including the body's use of oxygen. The pituitary stimulates, regulates, and coordinates the functions of the other endocrines. For this reason, the pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body. The two main functions of the hormones of the
adrenal cortex are the control of the proper salt and water content of the body; and the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In addition, the adrenal cortex secretes sex hormones, mainly androgens, similar to those produced by the testicles.
2) It strengthens the heart and any other muscle being used in the body so that the muscle works more efficiently. Muscle tissue is made up of elastic cells and fibers that can repeatedly contract and relax. Whenever we move, we do so by contraction of some particular set of muscles attached to the skeleton. When we hold our-selves erect against gravity we are using muscles in opposing groups, some held in a contracted state in order to maintain our balance.
Increase the G force, and you will cause greater contraction - the involved muscles work harder and get stronger. Rebounding increases the G force at the bottom of each bounce.
3) By strengthening the heart muscle, it allows the resting heart to beat less often. Each beat becomes more powerful and sends out a greater surge of blood around the body to nourish its 60 trillion cells.
4) It encourages collateral circulation, the formation of new branch blood vessels that distribute blood to the heart muscle and to other body parts by alternate routes. This indirect, subsidiary or accessory influx of new blood supply is valuable when there is a lack of nutrition to the tissues as the result of impairment of the main blood flow.
5) It tends to reduce the height to which the arterial pressure rises during exertion. The same kind of training effect that occurs from aerobics performance with external muscles, takes place in the media, or middle muscle layer of the arteries. The training effect gives the media greater muscle tone, and elevation of the blood pressure becomes less great in time of stress.
6) Furthermore, the blood pressure won't remain elevated quite so long because of this training effect, and it lessens the time during which the blood pressure remains below normal after severe activity. The blood pressure drops suddenly after the need for its elevation is removed; the training effect from rebounding aerobics brings up the dropped pressure to its normal level more quickly.
7) It lowers elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels As indicated in chapter two, L. Howard Harley, M.D., Director of Exercise at Beth Israel Hospital and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, discussed the relationship between physical activity and other risk factors for heart disease at a symposium sponsored by The American Heart Association, October 18, 1978. Dr. Hartley said, "Exercise can have a direct effect on blood lipids," and
studies have shown that "people who exercise regularly reduce their levels of serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides." Results of studies have also shown that exercise increases levels of high density lipoprotein fraction of cholesterol and "all of these effects of exercise are expected to have a favorable effect on cardiovascular health maintenance," said the exercise physiologist.
8) It holds off the incidence of cardiovascular disease. This is evident by acknowledging the risk factors of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high LDL (low density lipoprotein) and realizing that rebounding exercises reduce all of these elevated readings that have your heart at risk.
9) It increases the functional activity of the red bone marrow in the production of red blood cells. The red blood cells carry oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body and also help remove carbon dioxide from them. They are formed in the cancellous portion of the bone, the red marrow of which consists largely of blood corpuscles in all stages of development. About five million mature red blood cells are produced and released into the bloodstream every
second. The blood platelets, which are essential for blood clot formation, and the white blood cells, which protect the body against infection, are also formed in the red marrow.
10) It establishes a better equilibrium between the oxygen required by the tissues and the oxygen made available. This equilibrium is established by the red cells in the blood that carry oxygen to the organs and tissues and remove the carbon dioxide from them.
11) It circulates more oxygen to the tissues. The different oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood in the capillaries, and in the air in the alveoli cause the two to exchange gases. Carbon dioxide, at a higher concentration in the blood, leaves it and enters the lungs. Oxygen, which initially has a higher concentration in the lungs, leaves them and enters the blood. In the blood, oxygen combines with the red coloring matter, hemoglobin, which
transports it, pumped by the heart, to all the organs and tissues in the body.
12) It increases the capacity for respiration. Breathing is controlled by changes in the volume of the chest cavity, brought about mainly by muscular movements of the diaphragm. Expansion and contraction of the lungs to fill the cavity result in lower and higher air pressures within them, which are equalized with the atmospheric pressure as air is forced into and out of the lungs. Repeated rebounding aerobics accomplishes more muscular movements of the diaphragm
with the consequent chest expansion.
13) It -causes muscles to perform work in moving fluids through the body - which lightens the load on the heart. With two-thirds of the body comprised of liquids, the ability to send fluid to areas where it is needed such as to sites of inflammation, becomes vital. The amount of fluid in the body remains constant, con-trolled by the workings of the kidneys, and the surplus is disposed of through the bladder, lungs, intestines, and skin. The muscles also help in
this disposal effort.
14) It aids lymphatic circulation, as well as the flowing the veins of the circulatory system. Lymph is pushed through the lymphatic system by contractions of the vessel walls, by differences in pressure, and by the movements of muscles in surrounding parts of the body. At the base of the neck, the two main branches of the lymphatic system merge with two veins, and the lymph be-comes part of the bloodstream.
15) It promotes body growth and repair. Growth of the long bones are especially stimulated by rebounding; this is true because of the simulative effect on the pituitary gland. The gland's frontal lobe produces at least six necessary hormones, one of which is the growth-stimulating hormone.
16) It stimulates metabolism, which is a complex and continuous process that begins in the digestive tract and the lungs and goes on in every cell of the body. It consists of breaking down substances into simpler parts that are then recombined into countless new substances that compose the body. Every one of these chemical changes either uses up or releases energy, and rebounding conditions all the body's systems to handle energy more efficiently.
17) It enhances digestion and elimination processes. The .beginning of metabolism is digestion, where food is broken down into simpler elements so that it may be absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy, repair of tissues, and growth. The end products of digestion are eliminated from the body and regular muscular activity carries the entire process forward effectively.
18) It expands the capacity for fuel storage, causing extra endurance. But the storage will be as deposits of protein rather than fat because of the extra muscular motion from rebounding.
19) It reduces the likelihood of obesity, for exercise is vital in taking off excess weight. A daily program of\ rebounding aerobics may not cause the pounds to melt away overnight, but it will diminish body fat, improve muscle tone, improve the efficiency with which your body burns carbohydrates, and lower your pulse rate and blood pressure. Remember, there are 150 calories in a glass of beer. If your body does not need the energy these calories provide,
and if you don't want the beer to end up as fatty tissue, you will have to rebound for two minutes," run for six minutes, swim for 10 minutes, .or walk for 22 minutes in order to burn up the extra calories.
20) It provides an addition to the alkaline reserve of the body which may be of significance in an emergency requiring prolonged effort. The principal acid neutralizer, or base, in the body is sodium bicarbonate which is manufactured from carbon dioxide and from sodium obtained from dietary salt. Sodium bicarbonate helps to maintain the delicate balance between acidity and alkalinity that is necessary for the normal chemical activity in the body. By stimulating
metabolism, re-bounding enhances this whole alkaline mechanism.
21) It more nearly attains absolute potential of the cells through chemical function. Cells respond to stimuli from the environment outside their walls. They perform the special task designed for them in the total economy of the living body. Thus, they will live up to their potential and function at peak performance if the environment is ideal. Oxygenation by muscular movement to in-crease respiration and circulation permit this potential.
22) It improves coordination through the transmission of more impulses and responsiveness of the muscle fibers. Impulses travel along a nerve by a series of reactions that are partly chemical, partly electrical. Motor or efferent,, neurons carry impulses from the central nervous system to the various parts of the body where they are translated into action. At the outer end of motor neuron, the frayed end of an axon spreads out to form an end plate, which connects
with muscle fibers Similar structures at the ends of sensory nerves are concentrated in the sense organs and irregularly dispersed in the skin. The more coordinated procedures are carried out, the finer becomes future coordination efforts. Rebounding is a coordinative process.
23) It affords a feeling of muscular vigor from in-creased muscle tone. Healthy muscles are important to our sense of well-being, our grace, coordination, and energy. But only properly exercised muscles stay in good condition; the reduced muscle tone that goes with a sedentary life can lead to poor circulation and a sense of physical depression. If muscles are not used at all be-cause of prolonged bed rest or other immobilization, they become weak and atrophied.
24) It supplies a reserve of bodily strength and physical efficiency. Even when we stand perfectly still, muscles are at work supporting our weight and maintaining our balance. While we sleep the muscles of our internal organs continue their motions. Stored within the belly of a muscle is protein and sometimes fat that comes forth when called upon to provide hidden quantities of strength and energy.
25) It offers relief from neck and back pains, from headaches, and from other pains caused by lack of use of the various joints and muscles of the body. Almost everyone has experienced a charley horse that results from too violent use of a muscle. The muscle protests against an unaccustomed activity by becoming sore, stiff, and painful. By rebounding regularly, it's not likely you'll ever again have a charley horse.
26) It curtails the occurrence of fatigue and menstrual discomforts for women. Muscles are affected by a great variety of disorders. They also are the underlying cause of many health problems. Fatigue, overwork of a group of muscles, nervousness, or insomnia, for example, bring on muscle twitches and spasms. The same is true of muscle cramps, especially those in the lower abdomen which may be related to dysmenorrhea or other female trouble.
27) It results in better mental performance, within keener learning processes. You can help your brain to stay healthy and work at top efficiency by providing It with the necessary version through exercise and the sufficient amount of sleep.
28) It allows for better and easier relaxation and sleep. The amount of sleep needed differs with individuals, but generally the body and mind tell you they are tired. If anxiety or discomfort are interfering with your sleep, a good session of rebounding aerobics does wonders to give you the necessary relaxation diversion
29) It minimizes the number of colds, allergies, digestive disturbances, and abdominal problems. Simply rebounding keeps the entire body with all its variable systems in tune. They work coordinately to provide optimum metabolism.
30) It tends to stop premature aging. The effects of hardening of the arteries are, reversed,, prevented, or diminished. By conquering this ultimate pathology of the main degenerative diseases you will keep your mind alert, skin smooth, skeleton (flexible, libido intact, kidneys functioning, blood circulating, liver detoxifying, enzyme systems alive, hold onto your memory, and avoid different symptoms of the aging process. Rebounding aerobics will do it all for
you. It offers limberness, pliability, strength, and stretch, for all parts of the body. It does away with "desk-bound flabbiness" and executive stress which sometimes is the fate of many business executives and other persons. Peter Houck, President of Houck Industries, Inc.of Tulare, California was one such, business executive who was introduced, to rebounding aerobics. As a manufacturer of. metal drawer runners with nylon bearings, Mr. Houck first observed
exercises on a rebounding device at a home furnishings show. He read The Miracles of Rebound Exercise and later was again put in touch with rebounding by seeing a demonstration of it at his civic organization. He bought a rebound unit for himself and worked with the unit faithfully. Seeing the benefits of rebounding on his own body, Houck decided this was something his factory employees would enjoy, as well. Consequently, he wrote to Albert Carter and asked
what it would take to persuade Carter to travel to Tulare to explain in person exactly what rebounding exercise was.
Houck purchased six rebound units and six weeks later Carter presented rebounding aerobics to the entire staff of Houck Industries. In a lecture to each of two groups, forty employees in one and twenty in another, Carter gave a full description and demonstration.
Two weeks later. Peter Houck bought forty more rebound units. Two weeks after that, he ordered another six units, a total of fifty-two besides the one he used at home. Why? Because this business executive noticed a marked reduction in stress reactions among his employees from their engaging in rebound exercise. Production increased; people showed improved physical capabilities; they had uplifted spirits; felt more at peace; required fewer hours for sleeping;
generally looked healthier; acted more cheerfully at the work place, a reduction in absenteeism took place; and pulse rates and blood pressures of employees who were tested all reduced in readings.
Peter Houck noticed that he personally took firmer control of stress situations arising from his business enterprise. Whenever he felt nervous tension, he'd slip off his shoes to rebound for ten minutes or so. His administrative decisions became more effective, and he frequently arrived at them in the midst of his rebounding aerobics for, himself and his employees brought a profitable return to the business.